Astigmatism is a common refractive error that causes blurry vision. With astigmatism, the cornea or lens inside of the eye is irregular in curvature. This causes distorted images and blurriness.
Blepharitis is a condition that occurs when the glands located on the margin of your eyelid become clogged and irritated. This condition can cause dry eye symptoms such as dry, itchy and red eyes. Blepharitis treatment generally involves cleaning the glands and restoring proper function to avoid future build up.
Long-term blurry vision is usually caused by refractive error or eye disease. Injury, eye dilation, or foreign bodies in the eye can cause temporary blurry vision. Treatment of this issue all depends on the cause.
A burning feeling in the eyes is generally a symptom of another condition. The cause could be dry eye syndrome, incorrect use of contact lenses, environmental irritants, blepharitis, allergies or ocular rosacea. Treatment of this problem depends on the cause. Treating with lubricating eye drops may offer only temporary relief.
Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)
Conjunctivitis is an inflammation or injection of the outer membrane of the eye and the inner eyelid. This condition can be caused either by allergies, dry eye or bacterial/viral infection. The infection is highly contagious, and can be treated with antibiotic eye drops.
Cataracts occur when the lens, located behind the colored part of your eye, becomes cloudy. This occurs when the proteins that make up the lens begin to clump together, forming a foggy film over the lens. This can make vision extremely blurry and distorted, and can lead to blindness if left untreated. Cataracts are easily treatable through cataract surgery.
During cataract surgery, your surgeon will remove the cloudy lens completely from the eye. Once removed, the cloudy lens is replaced with an artificial intra-ocular lens (IOL). IOLs are made to mimic a healthy young natural lens, and some types of IOLs can correct astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia and even presbyopia. Some intraocular lenses can be customized to treat astigmatism and can even correct near and far vision, thus increasing vision at multiple distances for activities such as driving and reading.
A chalazion is a painless bump that occurs when a gland in the eyelid becomes infected. This bump can grow quite large and look red and irritated. A few chalazia go away, but many need to be treated by an eye doctor. Warm compresses and good ocular hygiene practices can help, but drainage can get rid of them.
Common Eye Disorders
Common eye disorders include refractive errors (astigmatism, nearsightedness, farsightedness and presbyopia), cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, dry eye syndrome and pterygium.
Corneal Abrasion (Scratched Eye)
A corneal abrasion usually refers to any scratch or blister on the surface of the cornea. Corneal abrasions are generally painful and require evaluation and treatment. Treatment can help stem cells to heal and prevent recurrent abrasions. Mild abrasion does not usually need treatment, and will repair themselves in a few days. Depending on the severity of the abrasion, your doctor will prescribe antibiotic eye drops.
Corneal ulcers typically occur as a painful, bloodshot eye. This usually includes mild to severe eye discharge and blurry vision. Corneal ulcers most commonly occur as a result of injury, trauma, and/or infection. Contact lens wearers are more susceptible to corneal ulcer. Topical antibiotics are typically used as treatment. If severe damage and scarring occur because of the ulcer, surgery may be necessary.
A detached retina occurs when the light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye lifts from the wall of the eye. This can be caused by injury and other conditions and should be treated by a medical professional immediately. Left untreated, retinal detachment can cause severe and permanent vision loss.
In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, the tiny blood vessels in the retina can become damaged. These damaged blood vessels begin to leak fluid and blood, which can obscure vision. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy, and can cause severe vision loss over time.
Double Vision (Diplopia)
Double vision can be in one eye or both eyes. There are many causes of double vision, including astigmatism, dry eye syndrome, cataracts, macular degeneration, and much more. Double vision can be harmless or a sign of a larger problem, which is why you should always bring this to the attention of your doctor.
Dry Eye Syndrome
Dry eye syndrome is an extremely common condition that causes dry, itchy, red and gritty feeling eyes and blurred vision. Dry eye syndrome can occur due to computer and mobile device use, hormonal change, age, allergies, environment, meibomian gland dysfunction and rosacea. Many treatments are available for this condition, although some people may experience chronic dry eye symptoms. Lubricating eye drops will offer temporary relief but dry eye syndrome progressively worsens with age and eye usage. A detailed evaluation is required for all the different tear glands and allergies to diagnose dry eye syndrome accurately.
Allergies affecting the eyes are extremely common, especially during season changes or around certain animals. Talk to your doctor about the best way to combat your eye allergies. Lubricating eye drops and allergy medicine may help, but your doctor may be able to prescribe something more helpful.
Eye twitching is caused by a variety of triggers, including stress, fatigue, eye strain, caffeine dry eyes, allergies and nutritional balances. Most eye twitching is benign, but can be an indicator of a bigger problem. Be sure to let your doctor know if you encounter this issue often.
The type 1 herpes simplex virus more commonly causes ocular herpes. Ocular herpes is a common, recurrent viral infection that causes swelling, tearing, eye infections, redness, sores, irritation and sensitivity to light. Treatment depends on where the infection is located in the cornea. Eye drops, ointments, and oral antiviral pills may be prescribed.
There are many different types of infections that can affect the eye. Common eye infections include conjunctivitis, ocular herpes, bacterial keratitis and more. Eye infection can cause extreme damage to the eye, and can occasionally cause damage so great that the eye cannot see. If treated promptly, most eye infections can be cured without permanent damage to the eye.
Eye pain can be attributed to many different conditions. Conditions like blepharitis, conjunctivitis, corneal abrasions, corneal infections, glaucoma and foreign bodies can all cause eye pain. Report any eye pain to your eye doctor as soon as possible! Some of these conditions can cause severe vision loss if not dealt with promptly.
Floaters, Flashes and Spots
Floaters appear in the eyes as specks, which may vary in size. These specks may appear to be on the surface of the eye, but they are actually inside the vitreous gel that fills your eye. Floaters occur as pieces of vitreous clump together. Flashes, which appear as “flashes” of light in vision, are a result of vitreous pulling away from the eye. These are common but require immediate evaluation as these symptoms can be a sign of retinal detachment.
Glaucoma is a condition that causes elevated eye pressure, and permanent vision loss as a result. As the eye pressure increases, it damages the optic nerve, causing it to become damaged. When the optic nerve becomes damaged and vision is lost, vision cannot be restored. It is important to control eye pressure to prevent vision loss from glaucoma. Your eye doctor can prescribe medications that help with this.
Hyperopia, or farsightedness, occurs when the eye is too short or the cornea has too little curvature. This means the eye cannot properly focus light onto the retina. Hyperopia causes the patient to see clearly at a distance, but vision is blurry up close. Treatment of hyperopia includes glasses, contact lenses, LASIK and other forms of surgical vision correction.
Hyphema is the pooling or collecting of blood inside of the anterior chamber of the eye. The anterior chamber of the eye is the space between the cornea and the iris, when fluid is typically cycled through the eye. This condition usually causes pain, and can cause permanent vision problems if not treated. How your hyphema is treated will be decided depending on your health, extent of injury, age and more.
Itchy eyes can be caused by dry eye or allergies and require evaluation. Extremely or chronically itchy eyes can be caused by allergies, dry eye syndrome, blepharitis and eye infections. Be sure to contact your eye doctor if you experience itchiness.
A macular hole is a small hole in the macula that causes blurred and distorted central vision. A macular hole can occur due to vitreous detachment, trauma, diabetic eye disease, a detached retina, extreme nearsightedness, macular pucker and more. Macular holes are generally treated through a vitrectomy.
Macular Degeneration (AMD)
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition that affects the macula in the eye. The macula is a small patch of light sensitive tissue located in the middle of the retina. The macula is responsible for central vision. AMD causes damage to central vision as the macula begins to deteriorate. Your treatment depends on the type and severity of your AMD.
Meibomian Gland Dysfunction
Meibomian gland dysfunction is the main cause of dry eye syndrome. The meibomian glands are responsible for producing the oil that is necessary for the tear film on your eyes to function properly. When the meibomian glands are not producing enough of this oil, the water in the tear film evaporates quickly, leaving you with dry eyes. Meibomian gland dysfunction can be treated with LipiFlow and may respond to diet changes. If undiagnosed and untreated, the meibomian glands can progressively shrivel and die.
Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long. This causes light rays to focus on the wrong part of the retina. Myopic patients can see clearly up close, but anything in the distance is blurry. This condition is extremely common and can be fixed using glasses, contact lenses and LASIK surgery.
An ocular migraine can cause vision disturbance or vision loss in one eye that lasts less than an hour. These can happen during or after a migraine headache. Symptoms include light sensitivity, blind spots or total blindness in one eye, nausea, and vomiting.
Optic Neuritis and Optic Neuropathy
Optic neuritis occurs when the optic nerve becomes inflamed, causing damage to the protective outer layer of the nerve. This condition is caused by neurological disorders, blood vessel blockage, ocular herpes and infections.
Ocular hypertension is a condition that means the intraocular pressure inside of your eye is higher than it should be. This condition can cause glaucoma, and in turn, permanent vision loss. Ocular hypertension can be controlled through a series of methods including laser treatment or medication.
Ocular rosacea is a condition that causes redness, burning and itching around the eyes. It can also cause burning, dry eyes, blurred vision, redness and light sensitivity. This condition can usually be controlled with LipiFlow and nutrients. Antibiotics may sometimes be necessary. If untreated, ocular rosacea can cause corneal haze, blood vessel growth and vision impairment. It also causes chronic red, painful eye.
Photophobia (Light Sensitivity)
Photophobia, or sensitivity to light, is a symptom of many conditions such as infection or inflammation that can irritate eyes. This can be a symptom of corneal abrasion, uveitis and meningitis. It is also associated with contact lens irritation, refractive surgery, sunburn and detached retina.
Pinguecula appears as a yellowish, fleshy bump on the surface of the cornea. These non-cancerous growths are caused by sun exposure. They can grow large and red and cause eye problems. Your eye doctor can treat or remove irritating or unsightly pinguecula.
Pterygium is a fleshy growth the can occur on the surface of the cornea. This growth can grow towards the center of the eye and obscure vision. It is harmless, but can sometimes cause irritation and vision loss. In these cases, you doctor can easily remove the pterygium in office.
Often referred to as “Vision over 40”, presbyopia is an age-related refractive error. This condition happens as the lens in the eye is no longer as flexible as it used to be, making it difficult to focus on objects up close.
Eye redness can occur as a result of many different conditions. Conditions like dry eye syndrome, blepharitis, conjunctivitis and ocular rosacea can all cause eye redness. To determine the exact cause of the redness, or if the redness is accompanied by pain or itching, or caused by eye injury, contact your eye doctor.
A subconjunctival hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel breaks just underneath the surface of the conjunctiva of your eye. The blood gets trapped as the conjunctiva cannot easily absorb it. A subconjunctival hemorrhage can occur without any obvious harm to your eye, such as after a sneeze or cough.
Sjogren's Syndrome is an immune system disorder that causes dry mouth and dry eyes. This condition can accompany other immune system disorders. This condition affects the mucous membranes in the eyes and mouth, causing Severe dry eye and sometimes, dry mouth with chronic fatigue and other problems. Dry eye needs to be evaluated as Sjogren’s Syndrome can cause gland destruction and severe eye pain and vision impairment.
Sleep in Your Eyes
Eye discharge, or “sleep”, in your eyes is a combination of mucus, oil and debris that accumulates in the corner of your eye while you sleep. This is your eye’s way of removing waste and potentially harmful items from your eye. This is normal, but excessive discharge can be a sign of conditions like conjunctivitis, dry eye and eye infections.
A stye is a clogged, infected meibomian gland. Meibomian glands line your eyelid margins on the top and lower eyelids, and are responsible for creating the oil that keeps your eye confortable. It can be painful and requires treatment with medication and compresses.
Eyelids can become swollen for a number of reasons. Styes, chalazia, infections and blepharitis can cause swollen eyelids, as well as allergies or injury. The treatment of this symptom depends on the cause.
Vascular Occlusions (Eye Strokes or Blood Vessel Blockage)
Eye occlusions, also known as eye strokes, occur when a blockage occurs in the arteries or veins in the retina. This can cause vision loss, however the extent of the vision loss depends on the location and severity of the occlusion.
More about Vascular Occlusions (Eye Strokes or Blood Vessel Blockage)
Vitrectomy and Vitreoretinal Procedures
Vitrectomy and other vitreoretinal procedures are performed to fix problems with the vitreous gel (the fluid that fills your eye cavity.) A vitrectomy can be performed to treat vision problems due to diabetic retinopathy and other retinal issues.